AcknowledgementsThis work was financially supported by the
Malaysia is blessed with 17.98 million hectares of natural forest and 7.61 million hectares of agriculture land (MTIB, 2012). The agricultural sector produces rubber, palm oil, rice, cocoa and coconut. Malaysian land is rich in palm oil Pracinostat resources. The world 46% of the palm oil comes from this land (MPOB, 2013). Being the world leading palm oil producer and exporter, the country palm oil sector generates huge quantity of palm oil waste residue, which is discarded as empty fruit bunches, mesocarp fiber, oil palm shell (OPS) and palm oil mill effluent (GGS, 2011). For this reason, proper utilization of solid waste biomass is necessary for environmental and economic reasons. In addition, the solid palm oil waste biomass, which is considered of no economic value, is commonly leftover around the palm oil mill surrounding area to decompose naturally or burned without energy recovery. In this concern, the solid palm waste biomass appears the most promising and potential renewable feedstock available for the conversion into valuable fuels and energy products.