In this work a combination of dynamic
Eq. (10) can also be applied for determining the performance of thermal cracking of other vegetable oil feedstocks and processes such as hydrocracking and catalytic cracking of vegetable oils. However, the preexponential factors and activation GF 109203X must be estimated for each feedstock through optimization over the range of temperatures as a result of feedstock dependent model presented here. In future, a fundamental kinetic model for thermal cracking of vegetable oils to hydrocarbons will be explored.
Supplementary data 1.
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Natural gas fueled engine; Heat balance; Energetic and exergetic efficiency; Destructed exergy
Nomenclaturem?aair mass flow (kg/s)m?cmass flow rate of cooling fluid (kg/s)m?emass flow rate of exhaust gas (kg/s)m?ffuel mass flow (kg/s)Tabsolute temperature (K)wawarelative air humidityAFRair–fuel ratioBTDCbefore top dead centerCNGcompressed natural gasDIdirect injectionEGRexhaust gas recirculationHCCIhomogeneous charge compression ignitionICinternal combustionLHVlower heating valueLPGliquefied petroleum gasMBTmaximum brake torqueNAnaturally aspiratedRPMrevolution per minuteVVTvariable valve timingWOTwide open throttle