Currently rising energy production is

Currently, rising BIM 23052 production is associated closely with increasing fossil-carbon emissions. Despite concerns about carbon emissions in the atmosphere, fossil fuels will probably remain the main source of primary energy for a long time. In order to prevent or to minimize climate crises in the long run, there are three main approaches: 1) Improved energy use efficiency in industrial, construction, agricultural, transportation and all other sectors, 2) widespread implementation of low fossil carbon renewable energy systems, 3) CCUS and geoengineering schemes. Given high costs and internal/external uncertainties of CCUS and risks and the unanticipated and uncontrollable side effects of various geoengineering schemes, improved energy use efficiency in industrial, construction or agricultural sectors and widespread implementation of low fossil carbon energy systems are clearly the most direct, and safe approaches. This means that we have to radically transform our societal metabolism towards low/no fossil-carbon economies. However, design and implementation of low/no fossil-carbon production will require fundamental changes in the design, production and use of products and these needed changes are evolving but much more needs to be done. Additionally, the design and timing of suitable climate policy interventions, such as various carbon taxation/trading schemes, must be integral in facilitating the development of low fossil carbon products and accelerating the transition to post-fossil carbon societies.