Our study showed that the

Our study showed that the rapid urbanization process was accompanied by a large amount of SB 415286 consumption and carbon emissions over the past 20 years. In 2015, the total primary energy consumption and the carbon emissions are 1.57 times and 1.48 times higher than that of in 2009; while in 2020, the two indexes are estimated to be 1.85 times and 1.67 times respectively. Because the energy consumption structure is dominated by coal and oil, carbon emissions will correspondingly rise. At present, energy use efficiency in China is lower than in many other countries, and the existing energy demands are incompatible with sustainable economic development. Alarmingly, the increasing carbon emission further hinders healthy social and economic progress and causes enormous environmental pressures. Shandong Province will face many challenges as it strives for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction. Hence, the effect of corresponding changes in carbon emission and energy use with increasing urbanization in Shandong Province deserves more careful study.