The objectives of the current
Considering the regional location, the Korean LCI database (KEITI) was primarily used for CO2 assessment in each phase of concrete, as given in Table 1. The LCI for a building material provides a collective data set that covers everything from the cradle to the grave. The Japanese Society of Civil Engineering (JSCE) LCI database (Sakai and Kawai, 2006) was also used for a data set that is not provided in the Korean LCI database, because the climate conditions and Dextromethorphan sources for concrete sources are similar in both countries. The FA investigated belongs to Class F (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 > 70%). The system boundary of all concrete constituents including SCMs is from cradle to gate of production plant. Hence, the specific lifecycle of SCMs includes the storage process of the by-product, crushing process, careful sorting process, metering process, and shipping process. The CO2 inventory for the concrete production phase was obtained from the conversion of energy sources consumed in the plant for annual productivity. The energy sources in the plant include electric power and crude oils.