Fig nbsp xA Direct indirect
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the mean proportions of embodied, direct, and indirect energy consumption (Fig. 4) and of the corresponding carbon footprints (Fig. 5) by the six metabolic actors shown in Fig. 1. The proportions of energy consumption for each actor were similar to the corresponding proportions for the carbon footprint. The embodied energy consumption and carbon footprint of the secondary NECA (i.e., the advanced manufacturing and processing sectors) were both the largest, but the carbon footprint of these sectors had a larger proportion of the total than the energy consumption, with values of 44.0 and 41.0%, respectively. This indicated that the advanced manufacturing and processing sectors had low emission efficiency. The third and fourth largest embodied consumption and embodied carbon footprint were for primary consumers (i.e., the primary manufacturing and processing sectors) and top consumers (i.e., the construction sector and the domestic consumption sector), respectively. Their embodied energy consumption accounted for 15.2 and 14.7% of the total, respectively, versus embodied carbon footprints of 18.3 and 13.0%, respectively. These results showed that the primary consumers had low emission efficiency, whereas the top consumers had high emission efficiency.