Aiming to provide guidance for

AcknowledgementsThe work is financially supported by the key project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).Thanks to the support of NSFC, item: 51135004.
Input–output model; CO2 emissions; Modified hypothetical extraction method; Carbon linkage; South Africa
1. Introduction
Global warming and 6 his tag use have been the focus of attention worldwide over the past two decades. However, debates on international climate negotiations and the adjustment of CO2 abatements seem intense but lack effective progress. As a high-speed growing economy that is part of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa Association (BRICs) and as one of the top CO2 emitters in Africa, South Africa has actively participated in exploring energy conservation policies domestically and pursuing energy cooperation within the BRICs and Annex A.
South Africa has experienced rapid industrialization since the 1990s. The rapid development of the economy and the extensive consumption of non-renewable fossil resources, which lead to CO2 emissions, have attracted attention across the world. South Africa is the 14th highest CO2 emitter globally, having emitted more than 367 million tons (Mt) of CO2 in 2011 (IEA, 2013), and its per capita of CO2 emissions is twice the world average (Arndt et al., 2013). Therefore, South Africa has been trapped in the development pattern of high CO2 emission because of the superiority of coal resources and high subsidies from the government to the energy industry. Furthermore, the carbon mitigation in South Africa has attracted attention because of the embodied carbon principles and export of raw coal and thermal power.