TPR was carried out to elucidate the reduction

Cleaner production designs and delivers strategic solutions for green chemicals, sustainable materials and environmentally preferable products (Ozalp et al., 2010). The reduction of CO2 emission is thought to be the primary aspect of cleaner production (Benhelal et?al., 2013 and Vet?né Mózner, 2013). Recent studies have attempted to explore several ways to reduce CO2 emission (Tonn et al., 2014), including readjusting industrial structures by the expansion of enterprises with low emission and low Cy5 hydrazide consumption, the exploration of new, efficient, and clean industrial energy, the capture and storage of CO2 for industry demand, and the alternation of CO2 to valuable chemicals. The last strategy involving both the consumption of greenhouse gas CO2 and the production of value-added chemicals (Aresta and Dibenedetto, 2007, Dong et?al., 2009, He et?al., 2009, He et?al., 2006 and Hunt et?al., 2010) presents great economic and environmental interests (Van-Dal and Bouallou, 2013). The direct formation of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO2 and methanol is one of the promising reactions for substitution purpose (Delledonne et?al., 2001 and Sakakura and Kohno, 2009). DMC is an important green chemical substitute for corrosive and toxic carbonylating and methylating agents, such as dimethyl sulfate and phosgene. It is also considered as an environment friendly intermediate for higher carbonates and carbamates as well as a promising octane enhancer (Ono, 1997, Pacheco and Marshall, 1997 and Tundo and Selva, 2002).