Fig nbsp is the WCRF of CCS and Non hydro
Worldwide demand of cement and concrete has increased exponentially in the last twenty years and is a result of the combination of strong ongoing global trends like the accelerated growth of population, the increased need for buildings and infrastructure and the growth of urban populations relative to rural ones (Ahmaruzzaman, 2010, Gibbs and Conneely, 2001 and Hasanbeigi et?al., 2012). Parallel to these trends, developing countries and transition economies have also considerably increased their capability of building new cities and urban settlements, demanding large amounts of construction materials to be continuously available in many places around the world (Dhir, 2006 and Foner et?al., 1999). This demand has been fulfilled by the expansion of established manufacturing facilities and the creation of new plants, consequently increasing the extraction of natural resources, the consumption of Q-VD(OMe)-OPh fuels and the environmental impacts. In 2009, more than 3 billion tonnes of cement were produced around the world and concrete still holds its title for being the second most widely used material on the planet, with an increasing value on the consumption per capita (Feiz et?al., 2014a and Xu et?al.,). Environmental impacts from these large production activities are extensive and just recently there have been an increased stakeholder awareness to engage in new sustainable industrial practices. Due to this situation, the cement industry has faced significant pressure and new challenges, as well as mandatory upgrades in processing technology (e.g. upgrade from wet to dry process) (Deja et?al., 2010 and Feiz et?al., 2014a). Carbon dioxide emission is the most dominant environmental impact in the industry, producing an average of one tonne of carbon dioxide per tonne of cement produced (Chen et?al., 2010, Ramezanianpour, 2014 and Sales and Lima, 2010).