Communication between companies is found to

Communication between companies is found to be another barrier preventing the expansion of a wider use of FA (Ammenberg et al., 2014). Ammenberg et al. (2014) also underlines the relevance of creating industrial symbioses when the aim is to reduce CO2 emissions in the industry. Because of the nature of the industrial processes involved, cement industry has the versatility of trading multiple flows of material and BAY-X 1005 from and to other industries that also seek collaborations.
At a worldwide scale, portland cement represents more than 80% of the total cement produced, in spite of proven alternatives that carry additional economic benefits and less environmental burden. This demonstrates that the whole industry experiences a narrow perception on the outcomes derived from the use of FA making it difficult to migrate into a more suitable direction (Jug, 2007). Technical limitations such as concrete curing become a challenge when using FA cements. Reports indicate that long-term compression strengths are directly dependent on precise curing techniques of concretes containing FA (Helmuth, 1987 and Mehta, 1985). Batching companies and individual users are often reluctant to incorporate these techniques, generally because these require additional time, resources and costs.