International experiences have demonstrated that through stakeholder

Table 1.
Department of Energy’s technical targets for on board hydrogen systems. Adapted from Ref. [27].Storage parameter200520102015Usable specific GDC0941 from H2 (kg H2/kg)0.0450.060.09Usable energy density from H2 (kg H2/L)0.0360.0450.081Storage system cost (
China energy policy; Market-based instruments; Command and control approaches
1. Introduction
The well-documented close relationship between GDP growth and fossil energy use and attendant carbon emission [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6] indicates that the emergence of a country as a major economic power cannot occur without increased in energy consumption and concomitant carbon emission. With one-fifth of the world’s population, China’s rise as an economic power is unprecedented in the history of human society. The conflict between economic growth and energy use and attendant carbon emission has also shattered all precedents. In a hypothetical scenario in which carbon intensity (carbon emission per unit of GDP) keeps pace with GDP growth rate, by 2030, China would be emitting as much carbon as the world as a whole is emitting today [7].