Before experts from Italy USA

Before 1970, experts from Italy, USA and Germany had mostly been involved in the design and development of the FK228 owned geothermal plants. Technological solutions within these energy projects were developed from fundamentals of physics, chemistry and mathematics that were a normal constituent of the classic engineering curriculum. Private Icelandic engineering consultancies were established around 1970 bringing experience from earlier community undertakings. These firms invested time and effort in developing further solutions fit for local conditions in the numerous geothermal projects underway. About 15 engineering students were hired during their summer-holidays into institutions and engineering firms, and they were urged to pursue innovative research and participate actively in the technical development. In this way young engineers adapted to a culture of problem solving innovation and got acquainted with geophysical and geochemical exploration, drilling, power station design and mapping practices. Know-how accumulated in the field and a local expertise was built up. The students obtained their training in situ, during the preparation of the first two geothermal power stations at Svartsengi and Krafla. Patents were, as a rule, not secured for expertise (R. Maack, Mannvit, pers. comm). It was considered more beneficial to always stay in the front line concerning innovative solutions in geothermal applications and offer hydrophytic leaves expertise on the world-wide market. Patents usually only hold for a few years anyway; by then newer and better solutions have been found. Courses on technological solutions were launched in 1981 at the University of Iceland (V. K Jónsson, University of Iceland, pers. comm.). During a 10year period, 219 Icelandic students graduated with insight into geothermal exploration and technology. The United Nations University Geothermal Training Programme was established in Reykjavik in 1979. The 'FK228' programme’s aim is to transfer know-how to developing and transitional countries with high geothermal potential, and is jointly run by the Icelandic Energy Authority and the UN [104].