Recently CHF enhancement has been reported for surfaces

Recently, CHF enhancement has been reported for surfaces with vertically aligned micro/nanostructures such as nanowires [105] and [106], micropillars [35], CNTs [111] and [112], and microridges [130]. Researchers have suggested wettability increase, surface area enhancement, and efficient liquid wicking (due to Apicidin presence of vertical micro/nano structures) as the main reasons for CHF enhancement. Particularly, Chu et al. [35] and Zou et al. [130] presented interesting 'Apicidin' explanations for CHF enhancement on the surfaces they developed. Based on Kandlikar’s theory [30] (Eq. (8)), Chu et al. [35] hypothesized that micropillar structures can enhance the length of the liquid–vapor–solid triple contact line and consequently, the increase in solid–liquid adhesion force, which contributes to CHF enhancement.equation(8)qCHF″=hlgρg0.51+cosβ162π+π4(1+cosβ)cos?1/2σg(ρl-ρg)1/4where β is the dynamic receding contact angle and ? is the inclination angle of the heater surface to the horizontal base.