Constructivism Developments in Moscow Architecture
1 of the most famous examples of Constructivism, the fashion which brings together straight lines and numerous forms this kind of as cylinders, squares, rectangles, cubes and so on, is the world-well-known Lenin mausoleum in the middle of Crimson Sq.. It was designed in 1924 by architect Alexei Shchusev.
The fashion does not only exploit the opposition in between different types and models, but it also plays on the contrast of different surfaces: tough partitions (decorated with granite chips) and windows. Windows are generally either strictly sq. or rectangular. They can also be horizontal like giant ribbons wrapped about an whole building. Ideally, there are round home windows, as well, generally at the extremely leading of the developing.
The earliest buildings developed by architects Konstantin Melnikov, Ilya Golosov, the Vesniny brothers, Moisei Ginzburg and many other people, appeared in 1925 as the country was just rising from WWI and experienced no cash for new building. Constructivism did not live for lengthy, only until 1931-33. There are about 600 Constructivism-style structures in the Russian money today.
Personal mansions had been things of the past, the revolutionaries determined, and it was time to develop community buildings rather: communal houses, factories doubling as communal kitchens, employees golf equipment and office structures.
In addition to the mausoleum, an additional famous Constructivist developing is the newspaper Izvestia workplaces at five Pushkin Square. While looking extremely business-like, it has a number of round home windows on its leading flooring.
The editorial offices of Pravda on 24 Pravda Street also belong to the fashion, a rectangular developing equipped out almost completely with home windows.
Then there is this amazing division shop near metro 1905 Goda on the corner of Krasnaya Presnya road and Presnenskaya Zastava, the one with the Benetton sign on it. It occupies a small area and appears like a triangle with its leading reduce off. On one aspect a massive window rises from the first to the third floor.
Constructivist structures began to endure substantial reconstruction after 1930-33, when the political scenario in the country had altered. The new functionaries called the famed style bad, tough and bourgeois, saying it produced the metropolis look unsightly. Later on on, it was replaced with what later on became recognized as Stalin Empire fashion (It is sufficient to point out the seven almost undistinguishable skyscrapers that dominate the city skyline.)
In the 1940s and nineteen fifties, the Constructivist architects were denied the opportunity to function, so some of them either gave up architectural style entirely, while other people resorted to teaching.
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The architects returned to Constructivism following 1958, when they designed a great deal much more community buildings this kind of as the resorts Yunost, Sputnik, Luzhniki, and Orlyonok, the publish-graduate pupil house on Shvernik street near metro Leninsky Prospekt and one of the buildings that tends to make up the Kursk railway station and other people, basing their designs on the once well-liked architectural style.