The optimum conditions for hydropyrolysis and slow pyrolysis

The optimum conditions for hydropyrolysis and slow pyrolysis of rice straw has been established and the characterisation of the pyrolysis products such as bio-oil and bio-char is necessary to understand the effect of reaction atmosphere. The product composition has been understood by using several physico-chemical characterization techniques.
3.3. Bio-oil characterisation
The organic fraction of the liquid bio-oil from the pyrolysis processes under hydrogen and nitrogen c-Myc Peptide has been characterised using GC–MS, FT-IR and NMR.
3.3.1. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)
GC–MS is a very powerful hyphenated technique that is used to identify the products formed by the reaction with the help of difference in retention time in a column followed by difference in molecular mass of the compound. The identified compounds have been classified into various groups such as phenolic derivatives and aromatic ethers which are majorly derived from the lignin component of lignocellulosic biomass, furans, acids/esters, hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds, long chain alcohols, nitrogen compounds and other non-classified compounds. The GC–MS results of the various hydropyrolysis bio-oils at 1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 bar at 400 °C has been presented as Fig. 1a. The classifications of the compounds present in bio-oils derived by slow pyrolysis are presented as Fig. 1b.