AcknowledgementsFinancial supports by the Ministry of Science

AcknowledgementsFinancial supports by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan under grant nos. MOST100-2221-E-002-256-MY3 and 102-EPA-F-001-001 are appreciated. The opinions expressed in this paper are not necessarily those of the sponsors. The authors also thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions that greatly improve the quality of this paper.
AD, Cy3 NHS ester digestion; SI, wastewater treatment plant sludge-based inoculum; MI, manure-based inoculum; DCF, diclofenac; TCS, triclosan; NP, nonylphenol; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization; VFA, volatile fatty acids; TS, total solids; VS, volatile solids; PPCPs, pharmaceuticals and personal care products; IC50, 50% inhibition
Biomethanation; IC50; PPCPs; Toxicity; Xenobiotics
1. Introduction
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are considered to be emerging contaminants (micropollutants). These micropollutants have been reported in domestic wastewater, surface and ground water, animal slurry, and soil [6] and [7]. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), most of these micropollutants are partially adsorbed to the suspended solids and removed with the particles contained in the primary and secondary sludge [8]. These sludges are typically used as substrates in anaerobic reactors. Additionally, many of these micropollutants are used in the livestock industry and through the animal slurry they end up in the manure-based anaerobic reactors [9] and [10]. The adverse impacts of all the micropollutants on the manure-based AD reactors are not clear yet.