Microbial degradation or rather transformation plays a
Microbial degradation, or rather transformation, plays a pivotal role in the rate of alachlor elimination from the environment ,  and . Many studies have investigated both the characterization of either a selected microbial consortium or microorganisms in pure culture that are capable of degrading alachlor and the identification of byproducts, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of conversions. In the mammalian liver Cy7 NHS ester chloroacetamide herbicides are oxidized mainly in benzylic position by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase  and . Reactions of O-demethylation and N-dealkilation in liver microsomes also occurred . Conjugation with glutathione by glutathione S-transferase is a very common way of chloroacetanilides detoxification in numerous organisms . Bacteria transforms alachlor mainly via N-acetyl hydroxylation, whereas fungi capable of oxidizing with cytochrome P-450 prefer benzylic hydroxylation . Recently, an expression of cmeH gene encoding an amidase engaged in bacterial conversion of acetochlor  as well as novel bacterial three-component Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase catalyzing the N-dealkilation of chloroacetanilide herbicides were also characterized .