Fig xA X ray diffraction patterns Cu K radiation of

To investigate the impact of construction on uk101 transport properties, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out. Fig. 6a shows Nyquist plots of the DSCs based on HTNRs, C-HTNRs, and PC-HTNRs measured under a simulated AM 1.5 G illumination at open circuit conditions. Rs is defined as Ohmic series resistance of the device that can be determined by the onset of the semicircle. Rs of the devices based on HTNRs, C-HTNRs, and PC-HTNRs are 13.34, 12.13, and 7.73 Ω cm2, respectively. The decrease of Ohmic series resistance of DSCs can be attributed to HTNRs construction, which resulted in electron transfer improvement. AuNPs utilization further increased the conductivity of the photoanode based on C-HTNRs. Fig. 6b displays the bode phase plots of EIS spectra to obtain additional information about the electron lifetime (τe) in DSCs. τe can be estimated from the characteristic frequency (fmax) of the maximum phase shift at the midfrequency peak:τe=12πfmax