Experimental Synthesis Characterization Results and discussion Powder
Toward the on-chip Sulfo-Cy5 NHS ester of μSCs, it is pivotal to replace the traditional prismatic design with an in-plane architecture. Several strategies that include novel electrolyte formulations and electrode preparation procedures by planar microfabrication techniques are under investigation , ,  and . One important challenge in thin, flexible μSC development is how to immobilize the electrolyte. Ionic liquids (ILs), for their unique properties of low volatility, high chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability and good conductivity in wide temperature ranges, even in combination with polymer matrixes or as gels may represent a strategy to improve system life , , , , ,  and . IL-based electrolytes have been demonstrated to increase the supercapacitor energy delivered at high voltages and power rates both of large size and micro-systems. It has also been recently demonstrated that supercapacitors working with ILs feature leakage currents and self-discharge that are lower and less affected by the temperature than those of the cells with conventional electrolyte . The high boiling point of ILs also is an unique advantage for the development of thin electrochemical devices capable to operate above room temperature (RT).