In the case of Region
The electric charge transport in the self-associated liquids composed of hydrogen-bonded linear chains, is still a poorly explored problem if compared to the liquids where the basic structure is the network of hydrogen bonds.,  and  Water is the best example here and the intensive studies, mainly theoretical, were carried out on the possible mechanisms of the ABT-538 conductivity in that liquid. and  The main motive in those investigations is the old Grotthuss idea on the proton-hopping mechanism. Actually, the mechanism is assumed to involve the conversion between two main ionic structures of water: the H5O2+ (Zundel cation) and H9O4+ (Eigen cation), but the problem is still in debate.,  and 
A separation of the conceivable proton contribution from the total electrical conductivity of non-aqueous hydrogen-bonded liquids seems to be a hard task. It is mainly due to the ionic impurities which are omnipresent in liquids and which dissociate depending on the liquid permittivity and the temperature. That circumstance creates a conductivity background which is often too high for the detection of the proton contribution in total electrical conductivity. That problem has arised in our recent paper on neat EHU, where the conductivity data as a function of both the viscosity and the temperature were precisely analyzed but the conclusions on the nature of charge carriers were not univocally determined.