Water contact angle measurements Fig nbsp

Performance testing of flat sheet membranes was performed using a custom built cross flow filtration set-up comprising six Sterlitech CF042 cross flow filtration CID 2011756 (effective filtration area of 9.2 cm × 4.6 cm; 42 cm2) provided with constant flow rate and pressure by a G-13 Hydra-Cell, pump. The membrane performance was tested on membranes previously compacted using pure water and then tested either using untreated 36,000 ppm seawater obtained off the coast of Adelaide (South Australia) or with 2000 ppm NaCl solution adjusted to a pH of 8.2. Cross-flow filtration occurred at a rate of 2 L min− 1 and with transmembrane pressure of 4140 kPa for seawater and 2760 kPa for 2000 ppm NaCl solution. The collection of membrane permeate was carried out in a fats beaker placed on an electronic balance. All balances were connected to a computer and weight measurements were collected every five min using a Lab VIEW (National Instruments, USA) software program. The salt concentrations were measured using a conductivity meter (Extech Equipment, Australia). After the collection of flux, and salt rejection, the accelerated biofouling and organic fouling tests were performed (Section