Fig xA FTIR spectra of ldquo La Cr Eu
The phases in the sintered samples and ball-milled powders was identified with x-ray diffraction (XRD) using a Philips X’Pert Pro diffractometer with Cu Kα radiation (λ=1.5418 Å). The microstructures of ball-milled powders were analyzed by means of field-emission scanning Cy3 NHS ester microscopy (FESEM) (FEI /Nova400 NanoSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) (JEM-2100UHR, JEOL). The fractograph morphologies of the sintered bulk samples were characterized by FESEM. The bulk samples were cut into rectangular bars with an approximate dimension of 3×3×15 mm3 for testing electrical transport properties. The electrical resistivity (ρ) was measured using four-probe method. The Seebeck coefficient was measured by a dynamic method. The temperature difference (ΔT, 5–10 °C) between both ends of sample bars and the output voltage (ΔV) were measured continually during testing process. The ratio of output voltage (ΔV) and differential temperature (ΔT) was fitted by a least square method and the obtained slope coefficient is adenine Seebeck coefficient. The bulk samples were cut into small wafer with an approximate dimension of ? 12.7×2 mm2 for measuring the thermal transport properties. A Laser Flash apparatus (LFA457, Netzsch) was used to measure thermal diffusivity (D) and specific heat (Cp). The volume density (d) was measured by the Archimedes method. The thermal conductivity (κ) was calculated from the relationship κ=DCpd. The bulk samples were cut to an approximate dimension of 5×5×0.3 mm3 for the Hall-effect measurement. The carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature were measured by the van der Pauw method using the Hall-effect measurement system (HMS-5500, Ekopia). The electrical properties, hall-effect measurement and thermal properties were all measured in a direction perpendicular to the press direction during MAHP process.