Recent evidence indicates that high F concentrations
It has been well established that the metabolic rate of mammals is affected by Ta, and a decrease in Ta induces elevations of both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) , , ,  and . In contrary, mammals usually decrease the GDC0199 expended on BMR and NST after they are exposed to warm conditions, and reach a constant lowest rate of energy metabolism when they are in the thermal neutral zone (TNZ) ,  and . In addition to the decreasing energy expenditure, warm-exposed animals usually consume less food, and show lower energy intake than animals maintained at cold temperatures  and . It is therefore presumed that changes in Ta may have significant effects on energy budget in food-restricted animals, and consequently on the capacity to survive periods of food shortage. To examine this hypothesis, in the present study striped hamsters were exposed to a warm condition (30 °C, within TNZ of this species) and then restricted to 70% of ad libitum food intake. Physiological markers indicative of metabolic thermogenesis were measured and compared to ad libitum and food restricted animals housed at 21 °C. We predict that warm-acclimated hamsters show decreases in both energy intake and expenditure, but may have greater capacity to survive the periods of food restriction compared to the food-restricted hamsters housed at 21 °C.