Questionnaires The item Short Form
2.5. Assessments of mood states
For the VAS, eight questions were asked to provide a measure of the subject's condition and levels of fatigue, depression, carelessness, drowsiness, clear thinking, motivation, attentiveness, and concentration, all of which are known to be affected by the activity of PD 153035 HCL histamine neurons. The VAS consisted of a 10-cm line drawn from one extreme to the other (“not at all” to “most”), with subjects indicating the point on the line that applied to them at that moment in time.
Both the POMS and the VAS allow comparisons to be made between time points.
2.6. Cognitive assessments
2.7. Statistical analysis
All values are expressed as means ± standard deviations. Physiological parameters, mood factors, and PSQI scores at baseline were compared using unpaired Student's t-tests. POMS scores, VAS scores, and cognition data were compared by ANOVAs, with capsule (placebo and histidine), time period (periods before and after washout periods), and carry-over effects (groups A and B) as within-subject factors.