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6-20.six, P=0.027]. The cross-sectional region of brachial plexus was 0.95 +/- 0.15 in middle-aged and 0.51 +/- 0.06cm2 in elderly patients (P<0.001). Conclusions Within the Topoisomerase inhibitor solubility present study, we report a reduced minimum effective anesthetic volume for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block in elderly patients. Additionally, smaller cross-sectional surface place of brachial plexus in the supraclavicular region was observed.
Background Segmental dose reduction with increasing age after thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) has been documented. We hypothesised that after a fixed loading dose of ropivacaine at the T3-T4 level, increasing age would result in more extended analgesic spread. In addition, other aspects of neural blockade and haemodynamic changes were studied.

Methods Thirty-five lung surgery individuals were included in three age groups. Thirty-one sufferers received an epidural catheter at the T3-T4 interspace followed by an injection of 8-ml ropivacaine 0.75%. Analgesia was assessed with pinprick and temperature discrimination. Motor block was tested using the Bromage and epidural scoring scale for arm movements score. An arterial line was inserted for invasive measurement of blood pressure, cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV). Results There was no influence of age on quality of TEA except for the caudal border of analgesia being somewhat lower in the middle and older age group compared with the young age group. Heart rate (six.0 +/- 5.9, P<0.001), mean arterial pressure (16.1 +/- 15.six, P<0.001), CI (0.55 +/- 0.49, P<0.001) and SV (9.6 +/- 14.six, P=0.

001) decreased after TEA for the total group. Maximal reduction in heart rate after TEA was more extensive in the young age group compared with the other age groups. There was no effect of age on other cardiovascular parameters. Conclusion We were unable to demonstrate an effect of age on the maximal number of spinal segments blocked after TEA; however, the caudad spread of analgesia increased with advancing age. In addition, reduction of heart rate was greater in the youngest group.
Background It is well known that chest drains are associated with severe movement-related acute pain. These noxious stimuli could play a significant role in development and maintenance of persistent post-operative pain. Therefore we studied chest drain sites in post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) individuals, in regard to pain and sensory dysfunction.

Methods We quantified thermal and pressure thresholds on both the chest drain side and the contralateral side in 11 PTPS patients and 10 pain-free post-thoracotomy sufferers 33 months after the thoracotomy. On average, each patient had two chest drains inserted during surgery. Results At follow up, two patients experienced pain at the chest drain sites, but had maximal pain near or at the thoracotomy scar.