Pure NLBT piezoelectric ceramics were produced

Analytical grade Na2CO3 (99.8%; Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co. Ltd., SCRC), La2O3 (99.9%; SCRC), Bi2O3 (99.8%; Chengdu Shudu Nano-Science Co. Ltd.), and TiO2 (99.9%; SCRC) were selected as starting materials. The weighed chemicals were wet-milled for 12 h in polyethylene bottles with ZrO2 balls in ethanol. The milled powders were then calcined at 800 °C for 2 h. After calcinations, the mixture was milled again under the same conditions.