The XRPD patterns of the

The XRPD patterns of the prepared NLBT ceramic powder with different manganese contents are shown in Fig. 1. All patterns conform with the diffraction data of the pure NLBT [25]. The strongest diffraction peak for all manganese-modified NLBT ceramics is (119), which is consistent with the (112m+1) highest diffraction peak in BLSFs [4]. The patterns of the manganese-modified BLSFs are almost the same and the peak position shifts slightly. Therefore, the theoretical densities of these Splitomicin NLBT ceramics do not significantly change. The relative density of the manganese-modified NLBT ceramics was obtained and was found to be >97% of the theoretical density. This high value indicated acceptable densification during the sintering process. The introduction of manganese into NLBT ceramics also decreases the sintering temperature. The enhanced sinterability can be attributed to the substitution of Mn ions (Mn3+ and Mn2+) [30] for Ti ions (Ti4+), which results in the creation of oxygen vacancies. The occurrence of oxygen vacancies will promote mass transport, assist grain growth during sintering, and further increase the densities.