The evaluation consisted of 12 sensi tive Dutch versions of extensively made use of and effectively validated exams covering the major cognitive domains, that is, Understanding Memory, Attention Concentration, and Executive Functions. Exams in every domain had been chosen within the basis of cognitive concept and clinical validation stud ies and covered all appropriate subdomains. Initial, inside the domain Understanding Memory, Functioning Memory was assessed by the subtests Digit Span Backwards and Letter Variety Sequencing on the WAIS III. Episodic Memory was measured employing the Rey Auditory Verbal Studying Test plus the subtest Story Recall of your Rivermead Behavioural Memory Check and Semantic Memory was assessed by the Semantic Fluency Test.

As part of the domain Attention Concentration, Sustained At tention was assessed utilizing the d2 Check, Alertness was measured by the WAIS III Digit Span Forward and also the subtest Alertness from your computerized TAP 2. 1. Inside the domain Functions the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was used to measure Response Generation. Response Inhibition was tapped from the Stroop Color Word check. Psychological Flexibility by the sub test Flexibility of the TAP 2. one and Issue Solving by the Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test and Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices. To estimate the degree of premorbid intelligence the Dutch model of your National Grownup Studying Check was ad ministered. Furthermore, self report questionnaires had been ad ministered to assess psychological nicely becoming. everyday cognitive fail ures. mood and fatigue. Biomarkers Inside the patient groups, blood samples had been obtained to the day on the neuropsychological evaluation.

Blood samples have been analyzed for any total blood count, liver and renal function, and levels of testosterone, intercourse hormone binding globuline, estradiol, albumin, vitamin B12, thyroid perform, glucose C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation fee and lactate de hydrogenase. Free of charge testosterone was calculated from the testosterone and SHBG values. Plasma VEGF and serum cytokine ranges have been measured. Ranges of VEGF had been measured by a specific ELISA as prior described. We made use of the Th6 Th6 11plex kit in accordance for the companies protocol to measure cytokines ranges. The minimal detectable concentrations were estimated to be 4. two pg ml for IL 1B, 16. 4 pg ml for IL 2, 20. eight pg ml IL 4, one. 6 pg ml IL 5, one. two pg ml IL 6, 0. five pg ml IL eight, 1.

9 pg ml IL ten, one. five pg ml IL twelve, 3. 2 pg ml TNF. two. 4 pg ml TNF B and 1. six pg ml interferon gamma. Outcomes had been ex pressed as percentage of detectable values and as median values in both patient groups. Statistical analyses All neuropsychological tests have been scored in accordance to their manuals. For information reduction purposes and also to increase the comparability of cognitive domains, standardized z scores were computed employing the raw test results.