Concentrating the CSG brine in the multiple effect
Over the past 60 years, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been synthesized and applied in surfactants, textile, aqueous fire-fighting foams, and other commercial products due to their attractive characteristics, such as water and oil repellency, chemical and thermal NVP-BVU972 (Patrolecco et al., 2010). They have been widely detected in various environmental matrices (Dreyer et?al., 2010, Muller et?al., 2011, Myers et?al., 2012 and Wang et?al., 2012), wildlife (Taniyasu et?al., 2003 and Tomy et?al., 2009) and humans (Olsen et?al., 2012, Sundstrom et?al., 2011 and Wang et?al., 2011). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are two of the most detected PFASs in the environment and capsule is reported that they might cause adverse effects to animals and humans (Lau et?al., 2007 and Reagen et?al., 2007). Although PFOS and its related compounds were listed as persistent organic pollutants under the International Stockholm Convention Treaty (Wang et al., 2009), commercial production and application of PFASs continue in China and it was reported that about 15 Chinese manufacturers produced more than 220–240 tons of PFOS-related chemicals annually in 2001–2011 (Xie et al., 2013).