The rapid conversion of rural

Neither Lemming et al. (2010c) nor Cadotte et al. (2007) use an impact assessment method in which land-use impacts are reflected. Suer and Andersson-Skold (2011) do use an impact assessment method (taken from ReCiPe (Goedkoop et al., 2013)) that includes land-use to compare excavation and landfilling to phyto-extraction coupled with LY2606368 generation. The land-use results are particularly relevant in understanding the environmental benefit of putting the site to productive use during remediation ( Cappuyns, 2013). The results, however, only reflect the land-use benefits in terms of biodiversity preservation for the ‘no action’ scenario and not the benefits of being able to utilize the site in the other alternatives. In the context of brownfield remediation, the shorter duration alternatives require more material and energy inputs but yield the benefits of available urban space sooner. The question then is how to account for temporal variations between alternatives.