Fig nbsp xA Three dimensional

Despite SCG having demonstrated its potential to be reused as feedstock for various bio-products, based on the review and composition studies conducted by other academics (Murthy and Madhava Naidu, 2012 and Pujol et?al., 2013), SCG also contains other organic matters which are still unexplored. Among these organic compounds, tannin, which accounts for about 4% of dry SCG (Pujol et al., 2013), is a potential candidate to be utilized as natural polymeric material since it AZD7545 possesses natural phenolic compounds. This application is expected to give a new purpose to discarded SCG by further diversifying their utilization to a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, the utilization of tannin extract is highly associated to its extraction processes, as the extraction yield and reactivity might vary under different extraction conditions. Hence, a detailed research is definitely needed in order to study the effects of extraction parameters on SCG tannin extracts.
In view of the aforementioned, the main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of extraction parameters on tannin extraction yield and reactivity in terms of sodium hydroxide concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time, and liquid to solid ratio. The effects of these parameters are discussed in detail based on the obtained results, meanwhile to determine the optimum extraction conditions. These findings are not only valuable in advancing the sustainable development applications of SCG, but also for cleaner production processes in the coffee industry. Furthermore, this study exerts a vital step towards waste management as megaspores solves the ecological problem related to the disposal of land-polluting SCG, and also providing a green raw material for different industrial applications.