The studies summarized in Table provide insight into

Examples of these processes include evaporation or distillation to reduce the water content of urine (Udert and Wächter, 2012), precipitation of nutrient-rich products from urine (Wilsenach et al., 2007), and air stripping of ammonia from urine into sulfuric acid (Basakcilardan-Kabakci et al., 2007a). Life cycle assessments (LCAs) that include “urine volume reduction” are needed, as the social barriers, environmental costs, and economic costs associated with the transport of liquid urine are typically prohibitive (Berndtsson, 2006 and Lienert et?al., 2003).