Fig depicts the temperature dependent permittivity of unpoled randomly oriented
Fig. 5(a) represents the unipolar strain of the textured and randomly oriented samples at room temperature with a frequency of 1 Hz at the applied electric field of 6 kV/mm. The unipolar strain of the textured sample reaches as high as 0.46%, which is 20% higher than that GDC-0623 of the randomly oriented one. This strain is higher than the values of typical incipient piezoceramics, such as 0.35% at 5.5 kV/mm for BNT–BK reported by Ullah et al. , 0.45% at 8 kV/mm for BNT–BT–KNN by Zhang et al. , 0.35% at 8 kV/mm for BNT-25ST by Acosta et al. , and 0.45% at 6 kV/mm for textured BNT–BKT–KNN reported by Ye et al. . Moreover, even at a lower electric field (5 kV/mm) the textured BNT–BT–AN piezoceramics in microfilaments work could provide high strain of 0.38%. For the actuator application the driving electric field is generally lower than 3 kV/mm, thus the lower driving field is more favorable for these incipient piezoceramics.