In Goldfarb and Celanovic the authors approximated the hysteresis

According to obtained experimental results, it PP242 is difficult to determine the critical numbers of springs and massless bodies used to accurately represent the hysteresis dynamics.
As a result, an electromechanical model was proposed (Adriaens et al., 2000), which was constructed by transduction of the electrical charge and discharge behaviors, in order to generate applied force. In the mentioned study, the functions used for both describing the mechanical model of PEA and shaping the hysteresis loop were derived by using first-order differential and partial differential equations, respectively.