Fig xA Examples of deconvolution and fitting

Upon deconvolution of the spectra three types of palladium species have been found at the surface of pillared clay supports. 3d5/2 bands with the lowest observed binding energy, 336.8–336.9 eV, are denoted A and attributed to Pd2+ ions in the PdO-like environment [67] and [68]. They appear only on Ti-PILC support, where they constitute the majority palladium species. In addition, two types of surface Pd4+ centers, referred to as B and C, exist in the catalysts.