In order to predict the removal and fate of target

In order to predict the removal and fate of target compounds during activated sludge process, Eqs. (3) and (4) were used (Tchobanoglous et al., 2002) for two full-scale STPs operating at SRTs of 18 d and 8 d (Table S3):equation(3)Min=Mbio-anox+Mbio-aer+Msorbed+MoutMin=Mbio-anox+Mbio-aer+Msorbed+Moutwhere MinMin and MoutMout are the masses of target compounds in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively (mg d−1), Mbio-anoxMbio-anox and Mbio-aerMbio-aer are the masses of target compounds that are biodegraded in the anoxic and the aerobic bioreactor, respectively (mg d−1) and MsorbedMsorbed the mass of each target EPZ-6438 removed with excess sludge from the bioreactors (mg d−1).equation(4)CinQin=(kbio-anoxCoutXVanox)+(kbio-aerCoutXVaer)+XVKdCoutSRT+(QoutCout)where CinCin and CoutCout are the concentrations of target compounds in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively (mg m−3), QinQin and QoutQout are the flow rates in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively (m3 d−1), kbio-anoxkbio-anox and kbio-aerkbio-aer are the experimentally calculated normalized biodegradation constants under anoxic and aerobic conditions, respectively (L gMLSS−1 d−1), XX is peptides the concentration of MLSS in full-scale bioreactors (gMLSS L−1), VanoxVanox and VaerVaer are the volumes of anoxic and aerobic full-scale bioreactors, respectively (m3), KdKd is the experimentally calculated sludge-water distribution coefficient (L g−1) and SRT is the sludge residence time in activated sludge bioreactors (d).