Pure TiO powders were synthesized by a sol ndash

4. Conclusions
AcknowledgementsThe authors are most grateful to the NSFC, China (Nos. 21205112, 21225524, 21475122 and 21127006), the Department of Science and Techniques of Jilin Province (Nos. 20120308, 201215091 and SYHZ0006) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. YZ201354 and YZ201355) for their financial support.
Appendix A. Supplementary dataThe following are Supplementary data to this PF-06463922 article:
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Surface Modification; TiO2; Photocatalysis; Toluene; In situ DRIFTS
1. Introduction
Toluene is one of the typical volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor environment, which is emitted from decoration materials, paint, and cementing compounds. In recent years, extensive research related to the removal of toluene has been reported [1], [2], [3] and [4], and heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) has been considered to be an attractive method for the degradation of toluene, as it can treat pollutants under mild operating conditions [5], [6], [7] and [8]. Currently, TiO2 is the most widely used photocatalyst for the degradation of toluene because of its stability, low cost, innocuousness, and relatively high activity [9] and [10]. To date, the majority of mechanistic studies on the photocatalytic degradation of toluene on TiO2-based surfaces involves the adsorption sites and structure, reaction intermediates, and kinetics [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15].