The settled material of TAs essentially

Natural gas and oil well extraction in shale basins has been shown to be close to streams and pose multiple environmental threats to streams that include water flow alteration, sedimentation, and surface and groundwater contamination (Williams et al., 2007, Kargbo et al., 2010 and Entrekin et al., 2011). The installation of infrastructure needed for natural gas extraction disturbs the landscape and can reduce core forest and riparian areas that decrease habitat and vegetation to buffer nearby streams from runoff (Drohan et al., 2012 and Moran et al., 2015).