Visual Signal Polymorphism Variation in signalling environments at micro

Considerable intraspecific variation is a striking feature of prey lures (Fig. 1). Such variation runs counter to naïve expectation that phenotypes should converge on a single optimum, and sensory drive has been implicated as one of several drivers of large-scale variation in signal-related traits, including polymorphism (Boughman, 2002). Evidence for such a role in sexual systems includes covariation between local light environments and male coloration in fish (Seehausen et al., 2008), covariation between male song and acoustic conditions in Amazonian ADX-47273 (Tobias et al., 2010), species-specific solutions to sensory trade-offs and correlated changes in male sexual signals in surfperch (Cummings, 2004 and Cummings, 2007) and variation in feeding ecology and signal morphology in the swordtail characin (family Characidae; Kolm, Amcoff, Mann, & Arnqvist, 2012). It also encompasses variation in sexual signal design across diverse environments reported for lizards (Stuart-Fox et?al., 2007 and Leal and Fleishman, 2004), butterflies (Douglas et al., 2007) and birds (Marchetti, 1993 and McNaught and Owens, 2002).