For both male and female captures fieldworkers remained close enough

The North African houbara bustard exhibits an exploded lek sociosexual structure (Hingrat, Saint Jalme, Chalah, Orhant, & Lacroix, 2008). In a lek mating system males defend small, clustered courts that females visit solely for mating (Höglund & Alatalo, 1995). In an exploded lek, males can be separated by considerable distances. In such a lower level of aggregation, females can potentially forage and even nest within a lek (Morales, Jiguet, & Arroyo, 2001). Houbaras usually inhabit semiarid desert areas occupied by subshrub vegetation (Hingrat, Saint Jalme, Ysnel, Le Nuz, & Lacroix, 2007). This study was conducted from 2001 to 2009 in eastern Morocco (2°13′W, 33°55′N), where the Emirates Centre for Wildlife Propagation (ECWP) released 20?652 houbaras onto different release sites. The released Rifabutin were reared at the ECWP's captive-breeding facilities in Missour (4°5′W, 33°0′N) and Enjil (4°32′W, 33°6′N). Individuals of known pedigree were bred via artificial insemination. Genetic management consisted of equalizing the founders' genetic contributions and avoiding inbreeding (Chargé et al., 2014). Prior to release, each individual was caught by an polar covalent bond expert bird keeper, weighed (±1 g), blood sampled (for molecular sexing purposes) and tagged. From 2001 to 2009, 957 individuals were fitted with necklace battery-powered VHF transmitters (see Ethical note below). Individuals were monitored at least bimonthly from the ground and by aerial telemetry (see Hingrat et al., 2004 and Hardouin et al., 2014). Bird locations were recorded via GPS and estimated with an accuracy of ±20 m by terrestrial telemetry and ±150 m by aerial telemetry.