Surprisingly little is known about whether birds can

It is important to note that the K02288 in stress responses in the presence of a conspecific (social buffering) is distinct from the return to baseline that is seen when social animals are brought together following isolation, or when bonded animals (mating pair or mother/young) are reunited following separation. To date, the literature on animal social buffering can generally be split into studies that focus on stress alleviation through conspecific presence during (e.g. Terranova et?al., 1999 and Varlinskaya, 2013) the stressor and those that focus on stress alleviation through social housing prior to and/or following (e.g. Hodges et?al., 2014 and McCormick et?al., 2007) the stressor (Kiyokawa, Takeuchi, & Mori, 2007). The vast majority of social-buffering studies have focused on mammals and many parameters have been used to measure social buffering. These include traditional stress indicators such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g. increased heart rate, cortisol; Hodges et al., 2014) and behavioural responses (e.g. escape attempts, Gonzalez et al., 2013), through to neural responses (e.g. Fos gene expression; Kiyokawa et?al., 2007, Kiyokawa et?al., 2014a and Kiyokawa et?al., 2014b), motivation to seek social contact (Geverink et?al., 1998, Ishiwata et?al., 2007 and Marin et?al., 2001) and recently even changes in ethanol intake (Hostetler & Ryabinin, 2014).