Data were subjected to statistical analyses and all statistical analyses

Data were subjected to statistical analyses, and all statistical analyses for this study were performed using SPSS. We evaluated the data for normality using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and found that none of the data were normally distributed. A log Cytarabine was applied but the data remained non-normal. Therefore, nonparametric tests were used to address our objectives. The Mann Whitney U test was used when comparing two variables, and the Kruskal Wallis test when more than two variables were being compared. A significance level of 0.05 was used. When results of a Kruskal Wallis test were significant, a post hoc test was applied by comparing a pair of variables with the Mann Whitney U test, and a Bonferroni correction was applied.
4. Results and discussion
The results of this research represent conditions within the alpine treeline ecotone four to 10 years after fire. This time frame allowed us to capture both geomorphic instability and tree seedling establishment, which was our research objective. Conditions immediately following fire were likely different than when we sampled because geomorphic factors often respond quickly after fire (Prosser and Williams, 1998 and Shakesby and Doerr, 2006). We were not able to capture erosion rates, for example, as erosion probably started occurring almost immediately after fire. However, we did use exposed roots and soil pedestals as proxies for soil loss.