The initial charge ndash discharge curves of the

The composition of the synthesized powder was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES, Optima 7300V, Perkin Elmer). The particle morphologies of the synthesized material were observed by scanning Temsirolimus microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffractometry was employed to identify the structure of the synthesized powder. The diffracted data of the synthesized materials were collected from 10° to 80° in 2θ range with a step size of 0.02.
For the electrochemical characterizations, the synthesized material, acetylene black and polyvinylidene fluoride (80:10:10) were mixed in N-methylpyrrolidinon to make slurry. Then the slurry was cast on the aluminum foil and dried at 120 °C for more than 12 h in vacuum. The resulting electrode film was subsequently pressed and punched into a circular disc. The entire CR-2032 cell was assembled in a glove box in an argon atmosphere. The electrolyte solution used was 1 M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate–diethylcarbonate. The cells were cycled from 3.0 V to 4.6 V with an Landct battery testing system. The electrochemical impendence spectrum (EIS) measurements was carried out with a PARSTAT 2273 electrochemical system. EIS experiments were performed at 5 mV from 10 kHz to 10 mHz.