Lambrianidis et al reported that both EDTA and CHX
Effect of smear layer on bonding to intraradicular dentine
Eick et al.  demonstrated that the smear layer was composed of fragments within the size range of 0.5–15 µm. McComb and Smith  described the smear layer on the instrumented root canal surfaces and proposed that it ZM336372 contained dentine debris, remains of pulp tissue, odontoblastic processes and bacteria. Later in 1977, Lester and Boyde  described the smear layer as being composed predominantly of inorganic particles, for the reason that sodium hypochlorite was not able to remove it.