Ibuprofen A wide variety of synthetic routes were

A wide variety of synthetic routes were proposed to prepare specific nanostructures of Y2O3, including nanowires/nanoparticles/nanotubes, etc., since they exhibit remarkably different luminescence properties from their bulk counterparts and many other Y2O3 nanostructures. More recently, rare earth (RE) doped Y2O3 nanostructures with various morphologies were synthesized by many research groups. Yan et al., [14] prepared Eu3+ Ibuprofen doped Y2O3 nano-spheres by a low-temperature reflux method assisted by CTAB, Liu et al., [15] successfully prepared RE doped Y2O3 microcrystals with a variety of morphologies by a hydrothermal method. Devaraju et al., [16] produced Eu-doped Y2O3 nanospheres and nanorods by a solvothermal reaction under supercritical conditions followed by calcination. Tan et al., synthesized Y2O3 hollow microspheres doped with the Yb3+/Tm3+[17].
Among the many synthetic approaches, wet chemistry route is turgor pressure an effective way for the production of RE doped Y2O3 nanostructures. In wet-chemistry processes, capping reagents are often required to control the crystal growth of the materials to enable the formation of nanostructures. Meanwhile, by suitably adjusting reactant concentration [18], temperature, solvent [19], organic additives [20] and quenching treatments [21] during the reaction, oxide nanostructures with controllable dimensions were obtained. Most of the above operations, however, involve complicated synthetic procedures, which may hinder the applicability of the products. Therefore, development of a simple, environmentally friendly method to prepare Dy3+ doped Y2O3 NSs with controllable morphology is crucial to obtain practical applications and thus become an important topic of investigation.