INCB28060 Rare earth RE doped yttrium oxide Y O and yttrium

Rare earth (RE) doped yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and yttrium–aluminum oxide (Y3Al5O12) were considered to be two of the best kind of oxide-based phosphors for practical applications because of their excellent luminescent efficiency, color purity, chemical and thermal INCB28060 [27] and [28]. Among the various applications of RE doped Y2O3 NSs, photoluminescent properties of these nano-materials make them attractive for many technological applications such as display devices, up-conversion solar cells, white-light generation and detectors in medical diagnosis equipment among others [29] and [30]. Li et al., and Nie et al., investigated along with the crystal structure and chemical composition, the morphology, crystal size and size distribution of RE-doped luminescent materials are crucial factors both for features and for the physical/chemical properties that characterize RE-doped luminescent materials application [31] and [32].
In the heterogeneous photocatalysis applications, recombination of electron hole pair plays a very important role, to enhance the photocatalysis we have to reduce the recombination of electron and hole. RE capping of semiconductors or deposition of metal oxides to semiconductors may reduce the recombination of electron and holes [33]. RE metals with incompletely occupied 4f and empty 5d orbital often serve as catalyst and enhance photocatalysis. It has been proven that RE ion has the ability to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the NPs, because of the electrons trap effect supplied by the alterable chemical valence (+2 and +3) sites [34].