NomenclatureACabsorption chillerBSSPbuilding service system packageCAVconstant air volumeCCHPcombined

The results may suggest that no clear direction is needed for the AMG-458 sector, as a wide range of combinations appear similarly feasible. Despite this broad feasibility of very different strategies examined, a “no clear direction” energy policy is untenable for several reasons. First, it likely means that decisions about deep decarbonization are deferred to a later date, which is counterproductive from the perspective of climate change mitigation [58]. Second, frequent policy changes and many possible solutions create deep uncertainty for investors, for whom the most reasonable approach then is to wait and follow minimum requirements rather than to actively seek out financing opportunities for alternative technologies at a large scale. Finally, many of the technological options come with drawbacks or caveats, for example, the large-scale deployment of wind farms results in disagreements over its resulting effect on landscapes. Thus these options need early consultation and buy-in from a broad range of societal actors, a process that takes time and effort. A “no clear direction” policy does not send a strong message to investors, and later changes in focus may leave them with stranded assets. This is why instead, an “all of the above” policy approach is necessary: a policy built on clear framing of goals and conscious choice to support investment into a specified set of options, for a minimum duration of time. It is important to create a transparent framework so that whichever system is desired is actually built. Only clarity on goals can result in the participation and buy-in of government actors, market actors, and civil society actors, all of which are necessary for a successful energy system transformation.