NomenclatureLiFePO lithium iron phosphate batteryCCConstant CurrentCC ndash CVConstant

NomenclatureLiFePO4lithium iron phosphate batteryCCConstant CurrentCC–CVConstant Current–Constant VoltageCC–CVNPConstant Current–Constant Voltage with Negative PulseEISelectrochemical impedance spectroscopySoCstate of charge (%)EIGenergy innovation groupHEVshybrid electric vehicleNnumber of negative pulses per one Concanamycin A of the charging processINPINPamplitude of negative pulse discharge (A)TNDTNDpulse width of the negative pulse discharge (s)CDCDdischarge capacity during the charging process (A h)Ttotal time for charging (s)CChCChcharging capacity, which can be measured by capacity test (A h)IChIChamplitude of implantation charge pulse (A)TPulseTPulsesum of charge pulse, negative pulse discharge and rest time (s)TChTChpulse width of charge pulse (s)TRestTRestrest time (s)RPTreference performance testRWRWdiffusion resistance (mΩ)τWτWdiffusion time constant (s)ωangular velocity (rad/s).RoRoohmic resistance (mΩ)RctRctactivation polarization resistance or charge transfer resistance (mΩ)RwRwconcentration polarization resistance or Warburg impedance (mΩ)twtwdiffusion time constant (s)VcovVcovbattery’s open circuit voltage (V)CdlCdldouble layer capacitance (F)