Four columns were prepared and the concentration of FeSO solution

The columns used in this Dorsomorphin study had a length of 30.0 cm (L), an inner diameter (ID) of 4.5 cm and a volume (V) of 477 cm3. The columns (made of glass material) and required accessories (e.g., tubing, seals) were submerged in diluted HCl (15% m/V) for 48 h (hours), rinsed with deionized water and then air-dried. Quartz sand (with a particle diameter of 0.30–0.84 mm) was used to mimic the aquifer sediments.