Typically xA g NiO nanoparticles

In principle, either the holes or free radicals (OH, H2O, H2O2) serve as the main oxidizing agents in photocatalysis. The strong adsorbability coupling with holes or the mild one combining with free radicals accesses a high activity, while excessive adsorption results in thick dye covering on the surface and a lower light transmissivity. Therefore, the compatibility of adsorbability and oxidants should be considered during the photodegradation. It is generally found that TiO2-related photocatalysis mainly depends on the free radicals [58] and [59]. In this Fingolimod study, GTM composites have been proven certain compatibility of adsorption and oxidization, as given in Fig. 7a. Slow adsorption process happened within 50 min in dark and consequently 35% of RhB was adsorbed, while 29.2% of RhB was adsorbed after 20 min. Subsequently both of residual RhB of two conditions were degraded after UV irradiation for 30 min. The similar result suggests minimum viable population (MVP) 20 min should be a reasonable adsorption time for better comparison of different samples. In particular, the difference of curve slopes during the adsorption and photocatalysis indicates that the later plays a more important role in organics removal.